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The name Ruby is derived from the Latin word for red, rubrum. Its color varies from purplish and bluish red to orange-red in medium to dark hues. Sister to Sapphire, Ruby is known in the mineral world as corundum, which is a crystal structure composed of aluminum oxide. Only red corundum is Ruby, all other corundum colors are classified as Sapphire.
Ruby is considered the most valuable variety of the corundum. In fact, large Rubies have consistently brought higher prices per carat at auctions than the most flawless, colorless Diamonds! This is primarily due to the rarity of gem-quality rough Ruby.